OpenEd@UCL

Items where Year Added is "2023"

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Number of items: 70.

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Evaluating Ethical Attributes of Chatbots and Text-generating Applications
The dissertation identifies the ethical attributes that AI systems, in particular chatbots and text-generating applications should have, designs a prototypical ethics evaluation framework and employs it – to evaluate select systems. It goes on to reflect on the effectiveness of the framework and discusses its limitations.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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International Order Reshaping Based on Argumentation Mechanism Design (ArgMD)
Recent geopolitical conflicts in Ukraine and Taiwan urge the democratic world to take prompt actions to defend democracy, to promote humanity and to prevent hot wars. Taking the geopolitical crisis into the perspective of game theory, International Order is a game played by the democratic world and the authoritarian regimes. Argumentation Mechanism Design in Answer Set Programming offers an automatic, flexible, programmable tool to lead the game towards desirable outcomes by modifying the game rules. This study abstracts International Order Reshaping as a Mechanism Design problem, tries and compares two approaches of mapping games into Answer Set Programming, then conducts an Argumentation Mechanism Design case study. Focused on International Order Reshaping, the case study re-designs the games with “Battle of Sexes” model, maps the games into Dung’s Argumentation Frameworks, then encodes the Game-Based Argumentation Frameworks into Answer Set Programming, where Argumentation Mechanism Design solutions can be automatically enumerated. The case study also promotes two methods to increase the interpretability of Argumentation Mechanism Design solutions—assigning compulsory attack relations and limiting the complexity of attack relation set. Results demonstrate support for Argumentation Mechanism Design in Answer Set Programming as an effective tool of automatically solving complex real-world issues. Code-generated Argumentation Mechanism Design solutions are interpretable as practical suggestions for International Order Reshaping.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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The Management and Development of Libraries at Women’s Colleges in Oxford, 1879 to 1920
This dissertation explores the management and development of libraries at women’s colleges in Oxford This study examines the colleges established for women students between 1879 and 1920: Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford; Somerville College, Oxford; St Hilda’s College, Oxford; and St Hugh’s College, Oxford. These colleges were founded to allow women to study in Oxford, but women were not permitted to become members of the University of Oxford until 1920. Consequently, most of the academic provision for students, including library access, was provided by colleges and the Association for Promoting the Education of Women. This study analyses contemporary documentary evidence to learn how the libraries were staffed and their collections developed, allowing us to gain a greater understanding of the history of women’s college libraries.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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The Binary in the Binary: Women’s Persistence and Advancement in the Technology Industry
The main objective of this research is to investigate women’s careers in tech. The purpose of the dissertation is to identify the factors that influence women’s persistence and advancement in the tech industry. With the ultimate goal of feminist research in mind, identifying, documenting, and collecting data on these issues is crucial to bring about social change in the industry and achieve equality. This dissertation attempts to understand and record the gender inequality in the tech industry and does so by conducting an extensive literature review informed by intersectional liberal feminism. The literature review discusses three major themes, namely: individual experience, culture, and career progression. This research underpins the design and agile development of the Binary in the Binary project, a proposal for a research tool used to test people’s perceptions on how gender affects career progression in the tech industry. The Binary in the Binary is a PostgreSQL database-driven responsive web application coded in PHP and JavaScript and run on the open-source Apache HTTP Server. The dissertation explains the development of the Binary in the Binary web application that uses the Model View Controller (MVC) design pattern.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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‘If RLUK academic librarians agree that digital strategies are in need of a (critical) decolonising process, powerful institutional change can occur, despite the intersection of education and technology with unethical values.’ – A Critical Discourse
The purpose of this paper is a call of action for Academic librarians to review their approach and definition of ‘Digital Inequality’. The paper argues for new definitions to be developed by Academic Libraries, within their digital policies, which incorporate Critical theory based, intersectional, non - techno deterministic approaches. Academic librarians, especially those from the Global North must recognise the role Higher Education and Librarians have in upholding digital inequalities through their current lack of critical awareness and critical approaches. Only by asking ourselves difficult questions about what we understand about ourselves and the institutions we work in can radical digital equity truly begin

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Beyond Empowerment: The Spires Homeless Centre and the Information Practices of Their Homeless Service Users
A qualitative study examining the information practices of the homeless, and the information literacy interventions of homeless service staff.

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What role can affect and emotion play in academic and research information literacy practices?
While significant progress has been made in broadening information literacy’s scope, its conception of the user and their relationship to information remains painfully limited. This is particularly evident when the affective or emotional factors of information seeking behaviour are considered. Thus far, information literacy’s models and discourses have failed to acknowledge emotion’s fundamentally non-cognitive, and disruptive nature and have either ignored, repressed, or misrepresented users’ emotions. This has resulted in a deeply limited and inaccurate conception of the user’s information needs, and this has a particularly harmful impact on marginalised users and users engaging with affectively fraught information. This article seeks to address this oversight, initially by outlining the origins of information literacy’s repression of emotion and then examining the consequences of this repression in the standardised information literacy models; specifically in Carol C. Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process and the ACRL’s Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. Subsequently, this essay will examine several critical models of librarianship and information literacy - including Holocaust librarianship and Indigenous conceptions of relationality - in order to illuminate models of information literacy that adopt a relational perspective that enables an engagement with the affective elements of user’s information needs. Finally, this essay will suggest that these relational perspectives facilitate the adoption of an ethics of care that helps address the insufficiencies inherent to our current conceptions of information literacy.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Are Chinese student incompetent in information literacy skills and what are the barriers behind?
Academic libraries are served as important information centre in higher education institutions and in academia. Information literacy competency are vital for academic and scholar success in higher education. Chinese students, as one of the most populated ethnic groups of international students admitted by UK higher education institutions, are experiencing multiple challenges in academic environment. It is worth assessing their information literacy competency in order to reveal potential barriers presented and discrepancies of our library services. This study intends: - To design and present an individualized and non-standard method to assess information literacy competency of Chinese international students. - To conclude a result of how Chinese international students performed in the assessment of information literacy skills, and to validate whether Chinese international students’ self-perceived information literacy skills have potential correlation with variability in language skills, and cultural assimilation, educational backgrounds. - To investigate whether there are barriers that prevent Chinese students from performing better in the assessment, in order to provide suggestions and guidance for institutions and library to assistant them well.

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Part of the Job: Patron-Perpetrated Sexual Harassment in UK Public Libraries
Patron-perpetrated sexual harassment (PPSH) towards librarians is an under-researched but indicatively critical area of sexual harassment studies and library studies. Preliminary research indicates that PPSH results from numerous overlapping social structures. These social structures include but are not limited to patriarchy and rape culture, white supremacy, feminised labour and service work. This dissertation is the first study on PPSH towards librarians in the United Kingdom (UK) and focuses on public librarians. 143 UK public librarians were surveyed about their experiences of PPSH over the past five years. The results of this survey indicate that PPSH is ‘part of the job’ for UK public librarians.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Sharing in the echo chamber: Examining Instagram users’ engagement with infographics through the frame of digital literacy
This dissertation consists of a qualitative study undertaken to investigate digital literacy from a user perspective. I examine how users’ digital literacy skills interact with their sharing of infographics, how they use infographics for activism, and the social and visual affordances of Instagram which help to dictate this relationship.

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To what extent are autistic library staff in the UK supported in their workplace?
Low employment statistics of adults with autism spectrum disorder in the UK, the low number of academic studies about supporting autistic library staff in Library and Information Studies academic literature and the indication within the relevant literature that autistic library staff may face barriers to receiving support because of the lack of understanding and negative stigma associated with autism, has prompted this investigation into whether libraries in the UK are providing effective support for autistic library staff. A mixed methods approach was employed to gather quantitative and qualitive data to represent the thoughts and opinions of autistic library staff about the support offered in their workplace. Two surveys were sent out to various library staff listservs, networks and social media groups and a few survey respondents were invited to take part in follow-up interviews which were provided in different formats. Results from both surveys and the interviews indicated that there were issues with disclosure, masking/hiding autistic traits, discrimination due to lack of understanding about autism by some line managers and staff, barriers to requesting reasonable adjustments at work and during job interviews, lack of provision of support services in UK libraries and the lack of provision of autism awareness training. Results have also positively indicated that some autistic library staff have certain traits and skills which enable them to carry out their library work. Although some of the participants have indicated that they have some level of support and face less discrimination in their workplaces, there is still more that can be done in UK libraries to support autistic library staff. Further recommendations are made about different types of support and providing special training for library managers and non-autistic staff to improve understanding about adjustments that autistic library staff may need. Further studies would be useful to understand about prevalence of autism in different sectors and understand the needs of staff working in different library sectors.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Sacred Suburbia: when American Evangelicalism and New Urbanism Meet
Although a significant cultural and political force in the United States, especially in the suburbs, the role of Evangelical Christians in shaping the built environment has been overlooked in planning literature. This research presents an initial attempt to understand this relationship in the absence of scholarly literature on this topic. Focusing on a case study in Reynoldsburg, Ohio, a suburb of Columbus, this dissertation investigates a mixed-use development led by an Evangelical denomination, a rare occurrence. Following a thorough literature review that contextualizes the different forces at play in this development, the researcher undertook semi-structured interviews with key figures involved in the development to better understand the dynamics and motivations involved in this project. These interviews were coded and analyzed to arrive at distinct themes, which inform the structure of the discussion. Ultimately, this research finds that collaboration between Evangelical leaders and planning practitioners in this case is due to market incentives; the use of a New Urbanistinspired typology is due to these market incentives. Ultimately, the Evangelical leaders were more influenced by the market and the opinions of planning professionals than theological or ideological principles, and therefore planners have opportunity to catalyze on the profitability motive when partnering with religious groups. This research may have wide implications for both planning academia and practice, and hopefully spur greater consideration of the role that Evangelical Christians, along with other religious groups, may play in development.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Urban Agglomeration as Catalyst for Regional Innovation: A Study of Planning Policy Implications in Yangtze River Delta
With the geographical expansion of economic development and the evolution of production method, urban agglomerations have become the new arena for innovative activities. Current research has studied the causation, performance, and synergy of innovative activities within agglomerations from both spontaneous and institutional perspectives. This dissertation chooses the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) as the case study. Although previous scholars have examined the evolution of regional innovation in YRDUA, few of them linked the changes with agglomeration policies. This dissertation aims to determine how spatial planning policies influence regional innovation capacity within an urban agglomeration over time. In this context, urban agglomeration is defined as a highly development spatial pattern of cities who compete while also seek collaboration with each other, and regional innovation capacity (RIC) is defined as the acquisition, absorption, and transmission of knowledge and technology that improve the output of products and services within a region. The study is based on the quantitative analysis of indices measuring innovation capacity and policy reviews. The evaluation framework is selected from the China Regional Innovation Capability Report and policies are retrieved from official public websites. Data are processed with the Principal Component Analysis under SPSS. The results indicate that although the ranking of regional innovation capacity did not change, their divergence has significantly narrowed. Further analysis suggests that policies have influenced the determinants and overall performance of RIC. On this basis, it is recommended that future policies aim at promoting regional comparative advantage and further exploring the utilisation of market mechanisms. Further research is needed to establish a more context-specific evaluation framework and identify the policy effect on the trickle-down of innovation capacities.

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Building Instability": the impacts of regeneration activity on local residents: the case of Southall, London
qualitative study of local residents of a regeneration area in London, seeking to understand the impacts which policy-led heightened development activity and the commodification of land is having on their lived experience.

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How are residents impacted by high-rise development and densification at a neighbourhood scale?
High-rise development and densification are tools used by planners to achieve social and environmental goals within increasingly populous urban areas. This study aims to explore the impacts that these processes can have on residents in the neighbourhoods they are occurring in. The project employs a mixed-method approach with both quantitative and qualitative processes. This methodology will be applied to the case study: residents on the Isle of Dogs. The Isle of Dogs is a neighbourhood located in London, England that has undergone intense high-rise development and regeneration. The study involved a quantitative survey of 49 residents and 7 participants from the survey volunteered to do a walked interview. The study focused on residents’ perceptions of densification and high-rise development. The findings indicate that residents primarily felt opposed to high-rise development and densification and felt their lives and the neighbourhood were both negatively impacted by factors relating to development such as infrastructure stress and loss of community. There was a geographic divide, with residents of newer high-rise towers on the Isle feeling less negatively about development. Residents also felt a lack of agency over the impact of development and densification in their neighbourhood. The additional pressures that densification places on infrastructure is the primary cause for resident's negative perceptions of development. This current study proposes that there is a need for a balance between new development and infrastructure pressure and this is key to ensuring residents are not negatively impacted and therefore more accepting of development.

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If beauty is the answer, what is the question?: A discourse analysis of beauty within national planning policy
Discourse analysis of the use of the word beauty within the 2021 NPPF in relation to urban social justice theories

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How do Nanjing residents separate waste?
Recent decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the amount of household waste generation worldwide, which inevitably brings about serious environmental problems and exposes sustainable urbanism to overwhelming challenges. China, as the most rapidly industrialised and populous country, is undeniably the largest household waste producer, generating about 200 million tonnes of household waste per year. Since the 21st century, China has been promoting to separate and collect household waste at source, however, household waste sourceseparated collection programmes in China are still in the initial stage and there is little literature on household waste management in the research context of China. To fill this gap in literature and to provide pragmatic implications for policymakers in Nanjing, a 20-person pilot interview and a self-report questionnaire survey with a sample size of 449 are conducted in Gulou District, Nanjing, adopting the TPB+ model I construct. The results of data analysis show that the 10 policy-related factors in the TPB+ model all have significant impacts on Nanjing residents' household waste source separated collection behaviour. Among them, environmental knowledge and awareness towards environmental problems, social/community atmosphere, publicity, policy clarity, accessibility to facilities serve as the five best predictors, suggesting that attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and normal norms are significant determinants of Nanjing residents' household waste source-separated collection behaviour. By contrast, the predictive validity of situational factors is relatively mild. Based on the findings, this dissertation further provides several relevant implications for the Nanjing government.

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An indicator-based evaluation of the sustainable urbanisation of London
With the outbreak of environmental problems such as scarcity of resources and frequent occurrences of extreme weather for nearly a century, there is growing awareness of the importance of sustainable development. Although urbanisation, the irreversible process, has a few negative impacts on our living environment, it is undoubtedly that it has brought a whole new era of human production and living patterns. Therefore, to meet the developmental needs of future generations, sustainable urbanisation should be taken as the development policy of contemporary cities. This dissertation aims to answer the questions of whether the pace of urbanisation and sustainable development is consistent and to what extent in London, by evaluating the stage of urbanisation and the degree of sustainable development of London city through measurements of the urbanisation rate and the overall score of sustainability based on hierarchical analysis and an indicator-based system. The consistency between the urbanisation rate and the sustainability degree is also evaluated based on the elasticity coefficient. According to the results, it can be concluded that during 2011-2019, London's level. Also, in addition to specific years like 2015 and 2016, London has a relatively high degree of sustainability. Combined together, London’s urbanisation process has been proven to be sustainable. The value of the elasticity coefficient of sustainable urbanisation in 2011-2013, 2016-2017 and 2018-2019 are relatively high, presenting a better sustainability performance. It is likely triggered by the 2012 London Summer Olympic Games, the implementation of the London Plan 2016 and the Mayor’s Transport Strategy 2018. However, the local authorities should still focus on works like alleviating the gap between the rich and the poor, improving the efficiency of housing use, improving the traffic environment, etc., to achieve a higher level of sustainability.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Exploring the asset growth effect in Green REITs
Green REITs have become a hot topic in recent years. There have been plenty of studies on the asset growth anomaly and Green REITs' performance, yet little about the asset growth effect among Green REITs. To fill in this gap, this research adopted the portfolio sort test and Fama-Macbeth regressions and found out that although the asset growth effect seems to exist and has a different presentation from other equities, the observed anomaly is likely attributed to the difference in greenness rather than the asset growth itself. This research concluded that the asset growth effect is not statistically significant in the field of Green REITs.

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Investigating users' perspectives on bike-sharing in Jinan, a second-tier city in China
This dissertation aims to investigate the perceptions about the bike sharing programme in Jinan held by its users. To better understand users' perspectives on the development of bike sharing programmes in Jinan, this dissertation aims to answer three questions: 1) What are the motivating factors for using shared bicycles in Jinan? 2) What are the detrimental factors that hinder user demand for bike sharing? 3) What are users’ suggestions for operating and developing a bike sharing programme in Jinan?

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An Adaptive Synthesized Analysis Tool for Measurement of Urban Morphology: Combining Space Syntax, Spacematrix, and Mixed-use Index
To help designers and planners better understand the composition and spatial context of planning sites, a GIS-based synthesized tool combining qualitative and quantitative methods is adaptively developed based on the Form Syntax tool to take accessible OpenStreetMap and Ordnance Survey data and to provide ordinal categorical assessment results of high/medium/low degrees. The morphological measurement tool is assembled within the qualitative framework proposed by J. Jacobs with advanced quantitative methods measuring street configuration using betweenness of Space Syntax method, building density and typology using FSI, GSI of Spacematrix method, and functional mixture using MXI (mixed-use index). The approach is validated with regression analyses focusing on relationship between morphological elements and urban vitality through a comparison to recent researches through the case study of London. The analysis results reflected on map series suggest the existence of ring-structure gradient of building density, and typology in the study area and the association among morphological elements. The synthesized method has proved the capacity of diagnostic function for block-level urban design and spatial context analysis of urban planning and redevelopment projects. This research deploys a threedimensional lens through the decomposition and synthesis, providing a relationship-prioritized perspective to investigate the complexity of urban environments and the interaction with socio-economic performance.

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The Role of Planning for Culinary Diversity: Evidence from London and Berlin
The purpose of this dissertation is to clarify the role of urban planning in contemporary societies through the lens of culinary diversity. Research indicated that culinary diversity could fuel urban economy and strengthen place identities of city dwellers, especially under the context of global migration. Despite the growing body of academic work regarding food governance and its link with urban planning, the role of planning as enablers and facilitators for culinary diversity has remained widely unexplored. To answer the research question: what is the role of planning in areas with culinary diversity, this research employed a triangulated analytical framework to examine different contextual factors of culinary diversity in two cases study: Mercato Metropolitano in London and Preußenpark in Berlin. After empirically analyzing the planning policies at various levels, planning process and socio-economic factors of two venues, this study found that planning interventions were reflecting the values of culinary diversity for the area. Findings also suggested that varying tools emerged from different planning systems and land use management. Despite the diverging planning context, diversified food offerings in both cities are the outcome of inter-related socioeconomic contexts, including mixed-use development, agglomeration and market appeal. As such, this study concluded by highlighting the need for place-based interventions that are sensitive to the local contexts and aspirations, as well as for collaborative planning to better understand the experience, need and vision of stakeholders, both of which are paramount amid strong market economies and socially diverse environments.

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The emerging Hong Kong diaspora in London: Understanding the early-stage interactions between Hong Kong immigrants under the British Nationals (Overseas) Visa scheme and the London housing market.
This dissertation aims to provide some empirical qualitative research into the interactions between Hong Kong immigrants under the British National (Overseas) Visa scheme and the London housing market. Results from structured questionnaire reveal that property location is shown to be the most significant housing determinant for new Hongkongers. However, spatially, there are signs of coethnic clustering in traditionally ‘homogenous’ neighbourhoods. Meanwhile, targeted interviews suggest that the London housing market is unable to accommodate to the housing demands of BNO immigrants both quantitatively and qualitatively. This dissertation concludes with a reflection of the London planning for housing system in terms of Local Planmaking and the Strategic Housing Market Assessment, and proposes several recommendations for the mid- to longterm planning for the housing impact brought by the continuing influx of Hong Kong immigrants.

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A Study on Young People’s Behaviours and Determinants of Cycling in Post-Pandemic London
PurposeThe purpose of this study is to explore the determinants of cycling among young people, and the impacts of the pandemic on the changes in their cycling behaviour and perceptions. Using a sample of university students in London, this study investigates which factors are more important to young people's cycling and the extent to which this epidemic influences their cycling behaviour and perceptions of the importance of cycling factors in the context of the new norms.ResultsThe most important determinants of young people's cycling are weather, trip distance, season and climate, infrastructure, topography, and perceived safety. Comparing with the pre-pandemic period, Young people are using public transport less and cycling more. Although their average cycling frequency increases after the pandemic, most still never cycle due to the lack of safe cycle lanes and available bike-sharing facilities. Young people also cycle more for commuting and transport purposes and less for recreation and sports. By comparing the changes in their perceived importance of cycling factors, only cycling purpose, perceived benefits of cycling, perceived risks of virus infection and cycling behaviour of friends and family show a significant change. However their focus on virus protection diminishes as the pandemic becomes more normalised.ConclusionThe pandemic is an opportunity for young people to cycle, and early actions need to be taken. The attention to weather, trip distance, season and climate, infrastructure, topography, and perceived safety should be strengthened in future research and transport planning. To build safe, trafficseparated, school-linked cycling paths and bike-sharing facilities in London is crucial to promote cycling among young people. The results of this study may have implications for cycling planning in the post-epidemic era or the new normal.

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TESTING THE JACOBS CONDITIONS FOR URBAN VITALITY: THE CASE OF UK TOWN AND CITY CENTRES AND THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC
In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs proposed four conditions for generating and maintaining vibrant urban diversity (mixed uses, short blocks, aged buildings, and sufficient density), but subsequent empirical work to test them has been limited. This study responds by studying town and city centres in Great Britain in the wake of coronavirusinduced restrictions to answer the question: can Jane Jacobs’ four rules for generating urban diversity help explain why some High Streets in Britain have demonstrated more resilience than others?

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A sustainable rEVolution? Examining the political framing of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and how BEVs affect Generation Y’s attitudes towards transport in Singapore
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have been heralded by some as key to reducing carbon emissions from the transport sector. Yet, there has been little critical research into their sustainability from a transport planning perspective. This study critically analyses the sustainability of BEVs in Singapore by examining the changing political framing of BEVs and how BEVs affect attitudes towards transport among Generation Y.The government’s pragmatic ideology led to BEVs being initially framed as an ‘unnecessary’ and expensive risk without clear national benefits. The subsequent policy reversal to embrace BEVs was due to falling costs, image issues, and a green growth opportunity. Encouraging BEV adoption was arguably never just about responding to the climate emergency.Among Generation Y, car ownership was associated with strong symbolic motivations. BEVs will likely strengthen them given BEVs are seen to signal progressiveness, innovativeness and prestige. Consequently, the promotion of BEVs involves a fine balancing act to avoid accentuating the car’s symbolism. BEVs were seen to connote eco-friendliness, but many doubted environmental reasons were a significant motivator driving BEV adoption. BEVs were found to strongly symbolise that one is in the privileged 5% of people staying in single-unit landed properties, where accessibility of charging points is not an issue. This is a concerning inequity that needs to be addressed given the government’s target to cease the registrations of new ICE vehicles by 2040.

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Creating an inclusive and accessible travel environment for elderly people: A case study in Xinzhou, China
This research takes Xinzhou, China, as the survey site to study the travel behaviour of the local elderly. Combined with the satisfaction survey, it analyses the problems existing in the travel modes with low satisfaction of the elderly. Last, it puts forward corresponding suggestions for these problems to create an inclusive and accessible travel environment for the elderly.

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Exploring Barriers to Community Initiated Placemaking: A Study of the Challenges Faced by Community Groups and Local Planning Authorities in London
Community initiated placemaking provides benefits for both communities and planning practice, however, barriers challenging the projects still exist. This research investigates the barriers, how they impact projects, and considers how they can be overcome. Assisting in filling a gap in the current field of study, this research is based in a London context, investigating a range of project types and exploring barriers from both the placemakers and local planning authority perspectives. Using a qualitative research strategy, semistructured interviews collected data from three community placemakers and one council officer. The data was thematically analysed generating four themes and nine sub-themes and developed into a framework synthesising the barriers. The framework demonstrates that common barriers involve resources, systems and processes, project team or people networks. These barriers have a multitude of negative impacts on the community placemaking projects and participants, threatening the projects' longevity and sustainability. Therefore, there are areas for improvement in planning and placemaking practice upon which recommendations have been made. The framework developed from this research can guide placemakers to understand the barriers they may encounter and can be adapted for future research.

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Mitigating Urban Heat Island Effect Through Climate-Sensitive Urban Design
Exposure to excessive heat is responsible for thousands of deaths and emergency room visits annually in the United States. Due to climate change, Texas cities have been warming faster than the rest of the world. Within 25 years, the number of 100 F days is expected to double. Cities are even more vulnerable than the countryside due to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. (Bielson-Gammon 2021)Adapting cities to this new climate reality is critical to ensure the vitality of public spaces and the health of urban dwellers. This major research project (MRP) evaluates the most effective means to reduce UHI at a neighborhood scale in a humid subtropical context. The MRP presents two massing frameworks and nine toolkit items that can be used by architects and urban designers to lower the air temperature and improve human thermal comfort.

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Accessibility, Urban Design, and the Whole Journey Experience of Visually Impaired People in London
Despite emphasising the importance of building an inclusive city for all in the London Plan (2021), the capitals infrastructure, including the transport network, displays design elements that fall short of adequately meeting the needs of VIP. This failure signals an inadequate understanding of VIP user needs and, indeed, the wider spectrum of accessibility requirements of other groups. At present, however, not enough is known about the journey experience of VIP, nor is there appropriate emphasis being placed on this user group by the relevant design practitioners within Transport for London (TfL). This research has demonstrated that the journey experience of VIP in London is fraught with barriers resulting from infrastructural design, operational practice, and a growing variety of design interventions introduced to meet wider societal goals. While it is acknowledged that VIP experience greater difficulty traveling in London when compared to those with full sight owing to the limitations imposed by their visual impairment, experiences brought about by design practice and the conscious prioritisation of certain user groups over others, exacerbates the already unequal experience of travel by this user group. This research has shown that exclusionary design practice is acutely experienced by VIP on London’s streets, where a growing number of mixed-use spaces are being created in places where, previously, clear demarcation of space existed. Other interventions, such as continuous footways, and particularly, the expanding network of infrastructure to support personal mobility, all produce the unintended outcome of widening the equity gap between atypical bodies and VIP.

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Archaeology in Real Estate: A Planning and Development Perspective from London.
An in-depth investigation into the contemporary role of archaeology within the current planning system in London, looking at its role in real estate development. Interviews with developers, planners and archaeological advisors form the original research in this dissertation.

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Facilitating Social Cohesion in Standardised Socialist-Era Neighbourhoods
In the USSR, the state housing programme was offering standardised mass dwellings which provided citizens with long-desired private flats. Today, however, many see these neighbourhoods as outdated and stagnant, not only because of the modernist layout, but also their social disunity and weak grassroots culture, aggravated by the vivid social mix of residents. The paper explores the ways of enhancing social cohesion in standardised socialist-era neighbourhoods in Russia. It suggests scenarios for different communitybonding practices, and appropriate spaces to perform them within the modernist layout of the neighbourhood. It also addresses the ways in which these practices can expand community networks and serve as catalysts for emergence of further initiatives suggested by other residents. These scenarios are applied to Metrogorodok neighbourhood in Moscow, Russia. It is suggested that the interventions performed on different scales - from an amateur exhibition inside a house entrance hall to a pop-up market on the busy main street - will result in residents forming stronger bonds and strengthen their sense of place, resulting in them proposing their own initiatives and potentially self-organise to defend neighbourhood interests in front of the council.

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The impact of personal safety perceptions on travel behaviour and attitudes: A focus on first and last mile walking trips in London
The aim of this research is to identify the impact of personal safety perceptions on individuals’ travel behaviour and attitudes when walking in London, with a specific focus on walking trips between an individual’s home/end destination and public transport stops (First and Last Mile Travel). The research will seek to understand the extent to which individuals are concerned for their personal safety during these trips, what factors impact this concern, how they alter their travel behaviour to overcome this, and how they their concerns can best be overcome. In addition, this research will discuss ‘who’ is most impacted and concerned for their safety, by analysing a set of sociodemographic data also collected as part of this study.

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Explore the Effect of Urban Green Spaces on Housing Prices in the Nearby Areas: A Case Study in Inner London
Public resources such as parks, transportation, and schools can be very important factors to housing prices nearby. Among these various factors, urban green spaces are especially essential since they can help approve the urban quality of living such as reducing traffic noise and air pollution, as well as being beneficial to human wellbeing. There are academic studies focused on cities all around the world indicating that the proximity to urban green spaces usually has a positive effect on housing prices in the surrounding areas, which is also part of the hedonic pricing analysis and called the proximity principle. However, relevant studies on the correlation between urban green spaces and housing prices have mainly concentrated on Global North, especially in the United States, Europe, and Asian cities. Few studies have mentioned the proximity principle in the United Kingdom context. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate the effect of urban green spaces on housing prices in nearby areas. London postcode system is being applied when designating particular areas including green spaces. Five renowned parks are being selected within Inner London and 5223 housing transactions raw data in total were collected within three parks to prove the proximity principle and make the results more general. Substantial evidence by quantitative data analysis through IBM SPSS Statistics 27 shows that the proximity to urban green spaces is positively correlated to housing prices nearby, regardless of the housing types. The conclusion of previous studies is still applicable in Inner London that the proximity principle is accepted in the Global North planning context. This research will shed light on the Inner London context in residential housing purchase decision-making, as well as for estate developers and governments to make reasonable planning development layouts with potential increased economic benefits.

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Policy innovations in public land disposal for community-led housing through the multi-level perspective
The lack of reliable pathways to access public land remains a barrier to the growth of the community-led housing (CLH) sector in England. Through the multi-level perspective (MLP), this dissertation explores the potential of policy innovations supporting land release for CLH development to transition regimes of public land disposal towards social sustainability. Qualitative data was collected to develop an empirical case study of the first policy in England to provide a framework for the systematic disposal of land for CLH projects. The findings suggest that bottom-linked governance between local authorities and CLH intermediaries is crucial to the development and implementation of land disposal policies. In this modality of governance, local authorities may set conditions for the release of public land that include the provision of affordable housing and the fulfilment of social value criteria. In this case study, these conditions have produced intra-niche debates regarding alternative housing tenures and the application of social value frameworks to CLH projects. The paper concludes with recommendations for the design of local CLH land disposal policies and legislative changes to the national regime of public land disposal.

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Designing Intra-urban Agriculture for the Compact City
urban agriculture design

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Has the Green Premium increased in recent years? An investigation using pricing evidence from the Central London Office Market
Increasing evidence of climate change is leading to legislation and market pressure around the carbon emissions of buildings, particularly in the UK. There have been several studies examining whether environmental certifications such as EPCs and BREEAM result in higher prices being paid for buildings. However, the data used in these studies is now quite old, predating recent developments in the field, including higher numbers of certified buildings and greater attention being paid to ESG issues. This study examines data on 592 investment transactions in the Central London Office market between 2017 and 2021. Using a hedonic regression method, statistically significant price premia of 20.6% were found for BREEAM certification and 3.9% for a single-step increase in EPC rating. However, only BREEAM produced a statistically significant yield premium, of - 0.24 percentage points. The relevance of these results, and the implications for the market, are discussed alongside other recent research in the area.

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Investigating the effect of mixed tenure housing policy in generating social cohesion. A case study on the Mixed Communities Initiative 2005.
This paper evaluated the mixed tenure housing policies in the UK that are based on the premise of generating social cohesion, specifically focussing on the Mixed Communities Initiative 2005. The Mixed Communities Initiative 2005 (MCI) developed by the Department for Communities and Local Government was set up as a policy approach implemented through 12 Demonstration Projects. These policies are based on the concepts of ‘area effects’ or ‘neighbourhood effects’ which suggests that the geographical proximity of disadvantaged households reduces their opportunity and increases disadvantage. Policymakers often use terms such as building ‘social cohesion’ or ‘social capital’ to promote the regeneration of housing estates through mixed tenure, without clearly defining these terms. This research takes a critical look at this theory by exploring the varying concepts surrounding the definition of social cohesion and the diverse mixed-tenured policies in the UK. Using leading literature on social cohesion and community engagement, it produces four themes for identifying social cohesion in mixed-tenure housing estates. The analysis is derived by studying the two demonstration projects of the Mixed Communities Initiative located in London.

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"How About We Take This Meeting Outside"? An Exploration Into The Way The Public Realm Can Support Outdoor Working In Central Business Districts.
An Exploration Into The Way The Public Realm Can Support Outdoor Working In Central Business Districts

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ADDRESSING THE GREEN PARADOX: Designing to actively alleviate green gentrification and benefit the existing community through green space improvement
This project looks at addressing the green paradox. This is where new or improved green space can provide benefits to the community, but can also cause displacement of the community it seeks to benefit through green gentrification. Green gentrification has only been studied retrospectively and as a result has not been actively addressed in the design of green space. As such, this project will explore how the improvement of green space can be designed to benefit the existing community, promoting interaction, accessibility and inclusivity while ensuring that those benefits are continually realised in the long-term by actively designing to alleviate green gentrification. It focuses on council estates in London, specifically looking at a site in Camden, North London.

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Neighbourhood walkability in high-density apartment complexes in Seoul, South Korea
Walkability has been an important principle of urban design and planning, and research has been identified the complex relationship between spatial attributes and users’ perception of walkability. However, limited research focused on which perceived qualities could be affected by specific attributes, and how people react to particular environment. also apartment complexes in South Korea have not been considered enough despite their unique typology and spatial attributes derived from cultural and historical backgrounds, which might affect residents' experience of their neighbourhood. Research in walkability lacks multi-dimensional studies, examining spatial attributes and people’s perceptions of walking. The research examines the complex relationship between spatial attributes in high-density apartment complexes and users’ perceptions of walkability. The data from GIS, observation and surveys were analysed cross-sectionally to decode how people evaluate their neighbourhood regarding walkability and discover unexpected patterns between spatial attributes and perceived walkability. Findings reveal that the possible implication of high functional mix and permeability combined with the Green network enhancing walking and encouraging people to walk and repeatedly visit their neighbourhood, which explains high sense of walkability. In that the Green network has been developed to overcome segregation of apartment-dominant neighbourhood, the finding provides further area of walkability debate on time and historical background, while corroborating the importance of walkability assessment in different geographical context. In addition, providing key spatial attributes of apartment complexes in Seoul, South Korea, the study suggests empirical evidence of current level of walkability in South Korea, which could support developing the concept of Daily-walking neighbourhood’ in Seoul Plan 2040.

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Examining sense of place in high streets
A study which examines sense of place in two London high streets from the perspective of local residents. The study uses a sense of place framework (consisting of the built environment, activities, and meaning) to explore attributes that contribute to sense of place in Totteridge and Whetstone high street and Marylebone high street.

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"You can't fix everything with prosecco": Tenants experiences within the Build to Rent sector and the implications for London’s housing market
This is an investigation into tenants' experiences within London's emerging Build to Rent market. The work looks at how the 'quality renting experience' matches up with the reality of tenants' lived experiences throughout a number of BTR developments across London. Furthermore, this dissertation looks to understand the role Build to Rent may have, as a growing asset class, on London's housing market.

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The Railton Low Traffic Neighbourhood: Evolving temporary urbanism projects and exploring inherent social value through a Feminist “Ethics of Care” framework
MRes Inter-Disciplinary Urban Design Research Report examining the social value of temporary urbanism projects within the Railton Low Traffic Neighbourhood (LTN) in Brixton, South London.

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Investigating public awareness and opinions toward residential retrofitting to decrease energy demand and improve environmental performance: an analysis of existing housing stock in Letchworth
This dissertation seeks to investigate public opinions on retrofitting their homes and any emerging trends. This includes the level of awareness about retrofitting, identifying the most important reasons for and against retrofitting their homes and whether these reasons differ depending on the age of a household’s property.

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Circular Public Housing: Enabling circular strategies in public housing estates in the UK for environmental, social and economic benefits
As the world faces resource scarcity, there is a need to move from the wasteful linear economy to a resource-efficient circular economy, which is not only beneficial for the environment, but also for the economy and the society. To accommodate a circular economic system, circularity principles should be applied to our urban built environment. Public housing estates in the UK, being economically and socially deprived, can adopt circular strategies at household, estate and neighbourhood level for economic, environmental and social benefits. Thus, a key research question emerges: How to enable circular strategies in public housing estates in the UK for environmental, social and economic benefits? With insights gained from literature review and field research, a circular framework with four principles and circular systems with physical space, programming, stakeholders and enablers are proposed. A framework for benefits and measurement is also developed. The circular framework and systems are then applied in South Bermondsey, one of most deprived neighbourhoods with a high percentage of public housing estates in Southwark, London. Circular strategies like Circular Hubs and Circular Hood are deployed. Environmental, economic and social benefits from the circular systems are then estimated to evaluate the design application. To scale up the circular framework, recommendations for local authorities and developers are provided for applying the circular framework and systems in future new development, either smaller urban development projects or larger scale master plan type projects to build a sustainable future for cities with circular neighbourhoods.

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Developing the High-Quality Dutch Cycling Experience: Lessons from Houten
A growing recognition has addressed the benefits of cycling to both individuals and the city, accordingly arising interest globally in how to promote cycling in practice, by emulating premier experiences such as the Netherlands. Yet, this remains difficult in practice, because both the provision of cycling and cycling behaviour is grounded in place-specific context. This gap limits the understanding of subjectiveness when transferring cycling knowledge and policies, indicating that in-depth studies are immensely needed where discursive practice of practitioner’s viewpoint and cyclists’ experience are important elements to explore.Hence, using a leading exemplar in the Netherlands, the town of Houten, this study aims to examine why Houten manage to promote cycling. 18 in-depth interviews with practitioners and local cyclists are conducted as the main method to collect qualitative data. The language used by diverse actors is analysed drawn on the critical discourse analysis approach.It is proposed that first, the high-quality provision of cycling infrastructure along with related measures in Houten include 8 themes: segregated cycle network, intersection modifications, traffic calming, bike parking, integration with public transport, integration with the built environment, education and programmes, social and cultural norms. These perform as both ‘push’ and ‘pull’ measures to facilitate people cycling and discourage driving. Second, the implementation is contributed to a participatory process where the municipals, planning team, cyclist groups and residents together play active roles against the dominant car-centred narratives. Third, the high-quality provision and positive interference of governance benefit cyclists with pleasant experiences by meeting the travel need for a fast, coherent, safe and interesting journey, and the social need for mobility independence and social identity. The three aspects together gradually form a cultural identity of Houten as a bicycle city, and residents as well-behaved cyclists, hence consolidating and normalising cycling in terms of changing narratives.

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Research on drivers and barriers to green building development in China: A case study of Shanghai
This dissertation aims to identify the key drivers and barriers of green building development through a case study in Shanghai. After reviewing past research on the driving forces and obstacles of green building, the driving forces and barriers of green building in Shanghai were determined by combining policy analysis and interview results. Finally, some possible policy recommendations for the public sector to improve the ability to develop green buildings are put forward.

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Urban Planning for the Circular Economy in London: Multi-Scalar Analysis of Small Urban Manufacturing as Sites for Circular Economic Transformation.
Cities are systems of production, consumption, and waste disposal that negatively impact our shared environment, and the current linear economic model of based on extracting raw materials, making single-use products, and disposing large quantities of materials is reaching its physical limitations. The circular economy (CE) has emerged as a tool to transition from a linear economic model where materials are made-used-disposed to a circular model where materials remain at their highest value for as long as possible. The circular economy challenges existing processes of making and linear models of economic growth that privilege systems of globalized mass production and consumption and re-centre localised production processes, broadly termed “urban manufacturing.” This dissertation uses London as a case study for mixedmethods, multi-scalar analysis at the city, borough, and firm level to investigate how cities can utilise the planning system to drive circular economic transformation. The most recent London Plan reflects the growing importance of implementationlevel spatial plans and attention to industry, and industrial land. London’s boroughs translate city-wide policies into placespecific waste management strategies, industrial land protection, and employment efforts to generate social, economic and environmental benefits of CE. London’s manufacturing activities are clustered in boroughs and regions, suggesting economic specialization, which boroughs can work to support. Transitioning to a circular economy requires nuanced understanding of the types of makers present in the city, government intervention to allocate adequate, affordable land for manufacturing activity, and design strategies to ensure manufacturing firms can thrive.

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Exploring the impact of climate adaptation strategy on public space quality: A study of innovative urban stormwater management in Rotterdam, The Netherlands’
Multiple-case study research using qualitative methods to explore impacts of water sensitive urban design on public space quality

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Urban regeneration for social sustainability under state entrepreneurialism: A case study of Baitasi regeneration project in Beijing
Abstract With the process of urbanisation, the world faces a conflict between growing urban populations and limited land. A large number of literatures describe many social problems caused by traditional property-led and large-scale demolition regeneration. As a result, urban regeneration is shifting towards sustainable development, where social sustainability is an emerging area of urban planning policy and practice. In this context, the trend of urban regeneration in China is micro regeneratio (weigaizao), which emphasises small-scale in-situ redevelopment and community vibrancy rather than creating land profits. This dissertation examines this micro regeneration approach and governance model behind it by taking the Beijing Baitasi Historical District (BHD) as an example, and analyses how the governance model can achieve social sustainability. The study used a qualitative approach to interview 10 stakeholders involved in the regeneration and a quantitative approach to conduct a questionnaire survey among 138 residents. The results show that the BHD regeneration has developed a coordinated government-market-resident governance structure which is based on a government-dominated property rights structure, which reflects the role of the state. The state uses land development models, national strategic objectives and project-oriented governance to implement strategies aimed at social sustainability. Not only that, micro regeneration has an initial character of social sustainability. By government dominance as the guarantee, commercialisation as the path, and people’s rights and power as the basis can the governance structure fulfil the objectives of social sustainability. The challenges are the dominance of the government being the obstacles to commercialisation, residents’ lacking direct and diverse channels for feedback and needs, and the complex property right structure. These findings provide lessons for the future urban regeneration in China.

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A ‘Naya’ Pakistan: How transnational practices have reconstructed the housing system through new productions and markets of housing in Islamabad and Rawalpindi
Housing production and housing markets are components of the wider housing system which need to be studied in parallel to reveal complex patterns that cannot be identified on their own. Within Pakistan, this system is following a new pattern as a result of its transnational migrant population and state policy influences. This is since Pakistan embodies a lucrative housing industry. Multiple different processes that can be argued to be influenced by investment patterns and growing aspirations of the middle class have reconstructed the housing system in Pakistan. As a result the increase in overseas Pakistani investment and the rise of demand for prestigious housing units has fueled the production of housing in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Whilst both cities are assessed, existing class disparities created by the stress of viable land for housing production in Islamabad have led aspirational housing to be produced in Rawalpindi. Moreover, to combat housing supply constraints the state has leveraged the rise of investment into the production of high rise-buildings however this has failed to be effective in the long term since it lacks affordability due to demand created by speculative investors.

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Is Tseung Kwan O Town Centre being gentrified by state-led transit-oriented development? Understanding neighbourhood changes and social inclusion in Hong Kong
The state frequently makes use of the transit-oriented development initiative to promote economic growth and revitalization. The Mass Transit Railway Corporation in Hong Kong uses the "Rail plus property" development model to make public transportation networks selfsufficient financially and promote sustainable urban expansion. Due to increased residential construction and the alteration of retail spaces and social services, however, it also serves as a catalyst for neighbourhood change in nearby neighbourhoods, resulting in transit-induced gentrification or parallel processes like suburbanization and professionalisation. Studies on gentrification brought on by TOD, particularly at the neighbourhood level and its relationship to social inclusion, are, nonetheless, underdeveloped in the Asian context. This raises the question the extent to which state-led new transit investment in Hong Kong accounts for neighbourhood changes (gentrification, suburbanisation and professionalisation) and whether such changes create a more socially inclusive neighbourhood in Hong Kong. To understand the changes in the sociodemographic characteristics, perceived neighbourhood change, and social inclusion of residents, qualitative (primary and secondary data) and qualitative (semistructured interviews) methods were used based on the Tseung Kwan O Town Centre case study, which has undergone significant changes over the past 20 years after the opening of the MTR station in 2002. The results from the housing price for owner occupation and census data indicated that there may be some overlap between the three neighbourhood transformation processes in the neighbourhood. Longterm inhabitants have noted the suburbanization of families and the commercial gentrification of stores, although due to the presence of public housing estates prior to the station's construction, there has been limited residential gentrification. Although accessibility and the quality of living environment have improved, however, long-term residents still struggle as the shops are less affordable.

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Usage and Perception of Pedestrian Streets in London
London already has several pedestrian-only spaces scattered around the city. Many can be seen as successful public spaces with many patrons and users. The study aims to take an in-depth, qualitative approach to understand how the public uses and perceives pedestrianized streets in London, assess critically the differences between different users, and identify what makes sociable pedestrian streets.

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Transit-oriented development and housing inequality: Testing the effectiveness of the Balanced Housing policy in Jakarta, Indonesia.
The concept of Transit-oriented Development (TOD) has been widely practised in big cities, including Tokyo, Hong Kong, London, and New York City, to improve urban lives by integrating land use and transportation planning (Atmadja and Bogunovich, 2019; Murray and Weerappulige, 2021), and addressing urban-related issues, comprising poverty, transport emissions, disintegrated urban system, and lack of affordable housing (Boarnet et al., 2017; Derakhti and Baeten, 2020). However, TOD poses potential risks of transit-induced gentrification and housing inequality (Ahlfeldt and Wendland, 2009; Duncan, 2011). Several countries, including Thailand, India, Colombia, the US, and the UK, introduced the inclusionary housing concept to respond to the risks. In Indonesia, the Balanced Housing policy was created to form social harmony in TOD areas (Mungkasa, 2020; Benson, 2010). However, its effectiveness is yet to be studied (Farha, 2017; Maharani, 2015).This study compares inclusionary housing policy in Jakarta and other cities in developing and developed countries to identify the research limitation from the existing literature. This research collects primary and secondary data through grey and academic literature reviews, semistructured interviews, and electronic surveys. The analysis of housing inequality and the Balanced Housing policy's effectiveness is based on house price mappings around the selected TOD areas in Jakarta, the electronic survey's findings from the impacted communities, and the perspectives of the experts, planners, academics, private developers, and nonprofit organisations on the Balanced Housing policy's enforcement in Jakarta.The research finds that despite contributing to the housing production in Jakarta, the Balanced Housing policy is still ineffective in fostering inclusive neighbourhoods and creating affordable housing to address housing inequality in Jakarta TOD areas. The research findings and lessons learned from other countries become the basis to provide some policy suggestions for Indonesia's government to make the current Balanced Housing and conversion fund policy perform better, including the need for creating a more efficient planning process and enforcement. This research also recommends future studies involving academics and experts to provide more dialogues between academia and the practitioners in view of the Balanced Housing policy's effectiveness in Jakarta TOD areas.

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Analyzing The Build To Rent ‘Housing Crisis’ Discourse – Does It Resolve Housing Affordability And Accessibility Challenges? A Case Study Of Cambridge
Examining the first BTR scheme in Cambridge and its potential role in addressing housing accessibility and affordability challenges

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Decanting on Estate Regeneration Schemes in London: Professional perspectives on responsibility and objectives
v‘Decanting’ refers to the process of moving people out of estates which are slated for demolition or redevelopment by local councils as part of a regeneration scheme. As an aspect of regeneration, it has thus been identified by some academics as a mechanism which enables gentrification and facilitates displacement of low-income residents. This dissertation seeks to enhance our understanding of how decanting functions in practice by sharing the testimony of council employees who have overseen decants on certain regeneration schemes. The research for this paper involved conducting interviews with employees of councils, developers and housing associations, particularly those in areas not commonly analysed in existing academic literature. Its purpose was not to challenge the perspectives and experiences shared by these interviewees, but merely to present their views and observe differences with prevailing narratives in current academic discourse on regeneration and decanting. The findings from this research suggest that previous academic accounts of decanting may overvalue the negative experiences of a minority of dissatisfied residents on certain estates when determining how decanting generally affects displaced individuals. Moreover, they neglect to adequately consider how council employees who oversee decanting approach their work, largely ignoring the principles by which they operate, underestimating the limitations and obstacles they encounter, and understating the extent to which the maintenance of harmonious relationships with decanted residents is conducive to frictionless development.

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How are China's local authorities addressing potential planning risks in the development of industrial real estate?
The development of industrial real estate in China is receiving more attention than ever before. This is because the development of industrial real estate has become more critical than ever, as it often requires the simultaneous construction or upgrading of municipal and transport infrastructure, thus creating a scale effect that is fully in line with the requirements of upgrading the quality of industries and services in the process of economic transformation. In the past, there has been a lack of interest in the development of industrial real estate as the value of land and scale of investment in industrial real estate has been less significant to local government finances and individual investment than in residential and commercial real estate. In order to adapt to the new situation, it is necessary to accelerate the research related to industrial real estate development. As planning is the first step in the development process, planners must be able to reasonably anticipate potential future risks and establish a comprehensive risk management system, which has been discussed at less length in past studies. Therefore, in order to enhance the understanding of industrial real estate planning and risk management work, this paper presents a local planner’s perspective on industrial real estate planning work, especially risk management, from the perspective of local governments and planners, using the example of Zhejiang, China, through interviews with staff from local authorities and literature analysis, and identifies some shortcomings in current planning and risk management systems, and concludes with some recommendations.

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Digitalisation, digital planning, local authority
Over the past few decades, conventional guaranteed maximum price (GMP) contracts “transferred” the construction cost risk to contracting and sub-contracting entities and protected the developer from escalating costs. In a post-pandemic inflationary market, conventional practices fluctuate as price inflation, supply-chain disruption, import logjams, and long lead times push contractors and subcontractors beyond their ability to absorb cost risks. The inability to fix construction prices removes the option to ‘transfer’ risk, and in response, developers are adding contingencies to absorb the newly ‘retained’ risk. This dissertation explores the viability of this assumption through professional peer interviews as developed through qualitative data analysis. In counter-response to material cost risk or supply chain (SC) risk that continually emerges amongst a myriad of evolving global health, social, and political volatility, this dissertation theoretically positions the construction and project risk management (CPRM) framework as the methodology for “internal” risk management (RM). The CPRM framework that sequences risk identification, risk analysis (through techniques like decision analysis, Monte Carlo Simulation, ENPV, SA, EMV, and more), and risk response offers insight into mitigating construction cost risk. In addition, an “external” perspective cultivates the Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) literature to enhance and evolve the understanding of dated CPRM techniques. Outside the literature review, qualitative data focuses on integrating CPRM theory in contemporary development. The dissertation research finds that developers—as supported by the literature review—utilize a mixture of formal and informal RM structures that rely heavily upon intuition and professional experience to mitigate transient market-led risk variables. Despite showing interest, some—if not many—developers lack the technical processes or the desire to holistically quantify the added risk of ‘retaining’ construction cost risk. The data reveals CPRM relationships that become recommendations to redefine and recategorize areas for future research and framework improvement.

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How do local authorities experience learning in response to changing practices: a case study of the digitalisation of planning at the London Borough of Camden
This dissertation aims to assess how local authorities experience learning in response to changing practices, utilising the case study of digitalisation at the London Borough of Camden’s planning team to do so. The investigation uses the frameworks of new institutionalism and new public management to approach the research, drawing from these to inform a conception of organisational learning that informs the project’s argument. Through the conducting of semi-structured interviews with five professional planners at different levels of Camden’s planning team the study identifies some core topics of investigation, using these to answer the initial research question and conclude that digitalisation can bring both positive and negative learning – though this is dependent on certain factors. These findings are then broadened to the wider study of local authorities, suggesting that they are adaptive institutions that can adjust to change, but need support to garner positive benefits from this. The dissertation concludes by suggesting future avenues of research into the identified phenomenon of ‘intra-organisational cultures’, as well as possible repeats of this methodology in different context to support this study’s conclusion.

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The Impact of Housing Finance in Bridging the Affordability Gap for Decent Housing in Pakistan
The research studies the housing market of Pakistan to establish that there is an affordability gap as household incomes are low and there is a scarcity of housing finance due to various issues such as undocumented incomes and poor governance. Due to the unavailability of housing finance, the affordability gap is not bridged and the middle class mostly acquires sub-standard accommodation on a rental basis.

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National Parks and Ecosystem Services: A case study of how this approach impacts an English National Park’s ability to meet its statutory purposes
This dissertation examines the practice application of the Ecosystem Services Framework in the concept of National Park Planning. The work first explores how the framework has permeated national park planning across English National Parks before looking at the South Downs National Park as a case study.

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How feasible is it to close food loops in London boroughs?
This research will be targeted in London to investigate the feasibility of closing the food loops in terms of local food growing, food reuse and food waste-to-energy. This research will be completed by examining the following questions: Q1: where are the policy gaps in closing the food loops in London? Q2: what challenges are faced in closing the food loops in London? The above questions will be answered through the following research objectives. 1. Through the policy and regulation review identify the policy gaps and what policies or regulations support or undermine the food loops closes. 2. This research will identify the challenges the key actors faced in London . Before the empirical research, challenges in CE implementation will be identified and framed.

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What are the social implications of microgrounded housing in Indonesia?
As the urban population in Indonesia is growing, limited availability of land, especially in big cities, causes microgrounded housing phenomenon to emerge. However, the social sustainability aspects of this housing model are little understood. This research seeks to understand the potential social implications on residents who live in micro-grounded housing in Indonesia. The adverse effects of crowding from case studies all around the world are being collected, combined with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and the housing value framework created by McCray and Day, are used to measure the social sustainability of the residents in Surabaya, one of the biggest cities in Indonesia. Combining interviews with empirical observations, this study used two opposite case studies: micro-grounded housing and standard-sized vertical housing, as a comparison to understand the distinct characteristic of the former. This study found that micro-grounded housing caters to fewer human needs and therefore only satisfies the lower part of Maslow’s hierarchy. When the basic daily need has not been fully satisfied, the urge to higher needs of housing value such as social interaction, prestige, and beauty, does not occur as this research found. A recommendation is made for more strict enforcement of space standards, for both building and plot size. Additionally, another form of housing such as co-living model could be an alternative to provide social sustainability through provision of more communal facilities. Moreover, the housing strategies need to focus not only on increasing the quantity of the house but also on its quality to reach a higher level of social sustainability.

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Placemaking in Hong Kong's heritage revitalisation: Delivering community value or masking commercialisation?
Hong Kong, along with other neoliberal, capitalist cities around the world, is experiencing a growing trend towards commercialisation in heritage revitalisation. On the other hand, there is advocacy for democratising urban planning where placemaking that aimed to foster a sense of place and community cohesion have arisen. In the dominant literature, there is a prevalent division on top-down and bottom-up approaches of placemaking. Contrary to the original intent of placemaking, the former is interpreted as an entrepreneurial strategy that employs heritage revitalisation as a branding tool and primarily seeks economic growth. The latter establishes place identity and heritage value. Critiquing on the binary concept of placemaking, this paper analyses how an in-between form of collaborative placemaking is used to facilitate the delivery of community values in a seemingly top-down revitalization initiated by the government and the Urban Renewal Authority (URA). This study focuses on the case of Central Market (CM) revitalisation project. It addresses the gap of collaborative placemaking by examining the power dynamics and participation of actors involved, the three manifestations of placemaking (tangible, intangible and mixed), and cross-evaluating the social and economic dimensions. While the case demonstrates an effort to deliver community value through authentic place attachment and cultural memories, which distinguishes it from previous URA-led revitalisation projects, it is concluded that the case study is not unique. This form of placemaking is found to be transferrable across large-scale revitalisation projects in Hong Kong as organisational intervention sets the scene by providing necessary landscapes and builtscapes, that should be combined with mindscapes and storyscapes to serve people. It is argued that recurring efforts and appropriate partnership are essential to deliver a sustainable outcome oriented towards genuine benefits for the public.

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Power to the people? An investigation into the efficacy of BREEAM Communities in facilitating citizen participation for urban developments in the UK.
Incorporating citizen participation into urban planning is a continued struggle; more recently, this has been coupled with a push to enhance the sustainability of urban developments. Various sustainability certification schemes aim to help developers build to high sustainability standards, yet few have incorporated strong citizen participation requirements alongside. BREEAM Communities is one of the first to do so. This dissertation aims to utilise Chantry’s (2022) political spaces of citizen engagement heuristic to assess the efficacy of such citizen engagement requirements in the BREEAM Communities framework. Findings from eight BREEAM Communities Assessors unveiled that the framework facilitates mixed levels of citizen engagement. In the realms of proposal formation and proposal implementation, BREEAM Communities has stringent requirements that have the potential to facilitate high-quality engagement. However, the information provision and deliberation aspects of engagement were found to be poorly facilitated. This research therefore recommends including specific information provision and deliberation stipulations in the BREEAM Communities compliance notes. Chantry’s (2022) heuristic was also evaluated; it was found that stakeholder attitudes to engagement could not be represented on the heuristic, yet it is important in influencing citizen engagement quality. Equally, a new political space of engagement timing was discovered. This, alongside smaller adjustments, has been added to an enhanced political spaces of citizen engagement heuristic. Findings concerning both BREEAM Communities and Chantry’s (2022) heuristic can provide a productive foundation to push for more effective citizen participation, both in theory and in practice.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Cities and development in the Hispanic Caribbean: A comparative case study of external influences on urban planning policies in Santo Domingo, Havana, and San Juan.
Cities are recognized to be the result of continuous exchanges. The circulation of urban planning ideas and practices is a well-known aspect of these interactions. However, during the last decades these processes have intensified, increasing the uncritical implementation of tools based on a false premise of taken-for-granted ‘best practices’. This situation is even more relevant in developing regions such as the Hispanic Caribbean, with a long and shared history regarding Spanish colonialism, the influence of external powers, and the transfer of foreign urban ideas. Due to this region’s increasing vulnerability and countless urban challenges, it is paramount that local city planning policies and frameworks are catered to the specific needs of the region. As a result, the research aim is to assess the extent to which contemporary urban planning policies in the three main cities of the Hispanic Caribbean: Santo Domingo, Havana, and San Juan are being shaped by external influences. Using a casebased cross-national comparative approach, the research methodology is threefold: the context; studying under which circumstances ideas have been transferred historically through a review of the cities’ planning and development histories, the object; identifying what is being transferred through a policy content analysis of contemporary national and city level planning policies, and the actors; exploring by whom and through which mechanisms ideas are being circulated. This information was then analysed and compared applying the policy transfer framework developed by Dolowitz & Marsh (2000). The research revealed that there’s still both voluntary and coercive transfer of urban policy ideas happening in the region. Influences from the United States, Europe and Latin America are still strong with an increasing role by international development aid agencies and supranational organizations. The continued study of these complex processes was recommended to recognize power asymmetries and ensure sustainable urban growth and development.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Are Mega Infrastructure Project appraisals appropriate for the twenty first century and post pandemic world? – An investigation using High Speed Rail 2
The aim of this research is to investigate the appropriateness of current MIP appraisal methods, and suggest a framework that will result in infrastructure that better addresses the current challenges of the 21st century and future post pandemic world. This is an attempt to refocus on social and environmental concerns through wider stakeholder involvement, rather than prioritising the growth economy and PPP incentives

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Low Traffic Neighbourhoods and behaviour change: a study of travel attitudes and acceptability in Streatham Hill
Low Traffic Neighbourhoods and behaviour change: a study of travel attitudes and acceptability in Streatham Hill

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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A review of environmental planning policy and the Post-Political – the case study of the Urban Greening Factor
The Post-Political Concept has, nominally, very high explanatory value. It neatly and plausibly ascribes a raft of structural and governance changes in urban policymaking in recent years to a neoliberal consensus that forecloses dissent and public engagement. However, the definition of the ‘political’ the concept relies upon and the lack of empirical observation of the theory have led to criticism. In choosing a case study which, at face value, represents a typecast Post-Political policy (London’s Urban Greening Factor), this study challenges the concept. Building an analytical framework that establishes three key dimensions of the Post-Political, the study operationalises the concept through interviews with built environment professionals, directly bridging the gap between theory and practice

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

This list was generated on Thu May 30 05:51:52 2024 UTC.