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Sustainable travel behaviours of TOD residents: An examination of TOD residents’ travel mode choices and consistency in Hangzhou
Transit-oriented development (TOD) is an urban design model designed to attract more sustainable travellers. However, not every TOD project conducts a highly sustainable travel sharing rate, and the proportion of daily car users in TODs is still growing steadily each year, especially in the cases of Chinese cities. Meanwhile, many Chinese cities are putting enormous investments into metro infrastructure development, but they are uncertain of whether these resources could be adequately used. Therefore, using the data collected from 1,298 TOD residents in Hangzhou, this paper aims to examine the wider impacts of TODs on the residents’ travel behaviours to broaden the current studies of travel behaviours by using the perspective of TOD residents and examining travel behaviour consistency. More specifically, this research employs three binary logistic models to identify the key variables which determine TOD residents’ travel choices and mode consistency. The results demonstrate that variables like monthly income, residential tenure, workplace metro accessibility and travel attitudes significantly impact travel mode choice, while variables like monthly incomes, the number of children in a household and increased car number influence the sustainable traveller’s behavioural consistency. A limited number of factors can influence car users to shift to sustainable travel behaviours. The research results would eventually contribute to planners’ design theories on TOD and implementation of new policies to reach a higher sustainable transport sharing rate within TOD properties as well as an adequate use of the metro infrastructure investments.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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The social impacts of Transit Oriented Development (TOD): The case study of Chengdu.
Rapid economic development and urbanisation cause serious traffic problems. To combat the traffic issue, many countries have begun to implement Transit Oriented Development (TOD). TOD can not only promote the development of public transport and alleviate traffic congestion but can also effectively curb urban sprawl and urban land problems, which have an impact on urban social development. This paper will use the city of Chengdu as an example to study the social impact of TOD on urban development.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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Transit-oriented development and housing inequality: Testing the effectiveness of the Balanced Housing policy in Jakarta, Indonesia.
The concept of Transit-oriented Development (TOD) has been widely practised in big cities, including Tokyo, Hong Kong, London, and New York City, to improve urban lives by integrating land use and transportation planning (Atmadja and Bogunovich, 2019; Murray and Weerappulige, 2021), and addressing urban-related issues, comprising poverty, transport emissions, disintegrated urban system, and lack of affordable housing (Boarnet et al., 2017; Derakhti and Baeten, 2020). However, TOD poses potential risks of transit-induced gentrification and housing inequality (Ahlfeldt and Wendland, 2009; Duncan, 2011). Several countries, including Thailand, India, Colombia, the US, and the UK, introduced the inclusionary housing concept to respond to the risks. In Indonesia, the Balanced Housing policy was created to form social harmony in TOD areas (Mungkasa, 2020; Benson, 2010). However, its effectiveness is yet to be studied (Farha, 2017; Maharani, 2015).This study compares inclusionary housing policy in Jakarta and other cities in developing and developed countries to identify the research limitation from the existing literature. This research collects primary and secondary data through grey and academic literature reviews, semistructured interviews, and electronic surveys. The analysis of housing inequality and the Balanced Housing policy's effectiveness is based on house price mappings around the selected TOD areas in Jakarta, the electronic survey's findings from the impacted communities, and the perspectives of the experts, planners, academics, private developers, and nonprofit organisations on the Balanced Housing policy's enforcement in Jakarta.The research finds that despite contributing to the housing production in Jakarta, the Balanced Housing policy is still ineffective in fostering inclusive neighbourhoods and creating affordable housing to address housing inequality in Jakarta TOD areas. The research findings and lessons learned from other countries become the basis to provide some policy suggestions for Indonesia's government to make the current Balanced Housing and conversion fund policy perform better, including the need for creating a more efficient planning process and enforcement. This research also recommends future studies involving academics and experts to provide more dialogues between academia and the practitioners in view of the Balanced Housing policy's effectiveness in Jakarta TOD areas.

Shared with the World by Elangkathir Duhindan

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